Southern Annular Mode

Today, glaciers in Patagonia and Antarctica are receding. In both cases, this has been attributed to changes in the Southern Westerly Winds and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). The Southern Westerly Winds are an important wind belt that encircles the globe in the southern mid-latitudes1,2, with its core between 50-55°S1. The Southern Annular Mode describes … Read more

PATICE interactive map

In this interactive map, you can explore all the glacial landforms and chronologies that were used to generate the new reconstructions of the last Patagonian Ice Sheet from 35,000 years ago to the present day. Click the PATICE logo below to launch the online interactive webmap. The GIF below shows the extent of the ice … Read more


PATICE: The Patagonian Ice Sheet from 35,000 years ago to the present day This page provides a brand-new reconstruction of the Patagonian Ice Sheet from 35,000 years ago to the present day (called PATICE). PATICE is a new compilation of published ages and geomorphology, ranked and assessed and recalibrated, which we use to generate new … Read more

Glaciolacustrine Landforms in Patagonia, Chile

This article summarises a recent publication by the author Bethan Davies and colleagues on glaciolacustrine sediment-landform assemblages in Chilean Patagonia: Davies, B. J., Thorndycraft, V. R., Fabel, D. & Martin, J. R. V. Asynchronous glacier dynamics during the Antarctic Cold Reversal in central Patagonia. Quaternary Science Reviews 200, 287-312, (2018). Ice-dammed lakes in Patagonia … Read more

Glacial geomorphology of the Patagonian Ice Sheet

This page is based largely on Bendle et al. (2017) and summarises the glacial geomorphology of the North Patagonian Icefield region (46–48°S). Glaciers and the Patagonian landscape The Patagonian Ice Sheet has expanded and contracted at least five times during the last million years1. During glacial periods, large outlet glaciers discharged along major valleys (see … Read more

The Patagonian Icefields today

Geographic setting Patagonia, between ~40°S to 56°S, is the most southerly part of the South American continent. The landscape of this region is one of contrasts. Dense temperate rainforests cover the western coast, whereas the eastern plains are flat, vast, and arid. Perhaps most striking, however, are the high, Patagonian Andes, which rise steeply (up … Read more

The westerly winds and the Patagonian Ice Sheet

The moisture-bearing Southern Westerly Winds The Patagonian Ice Sheet, which formed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) around 21,000 years ago, was strongly influenced by the Southern Westerly Winds. These winds blow around the Southern Hemisphere in the mid-latitudes (see map below) and deliver snow and rain to the western coast of southern South America[1], … Read more

Patagonian Ice Sheet at the LGM

What was the former Patagonian Ice Sheet? The Patagonian Ice Sheet was a large, elongated mountain ice mass that developed over the Andes mountains of southern South America during cold periods[1]. The Patagonian Ice Sheet has advanced and retreated at least 5 times in the last million years[2] in response to changes in global climate (i.e. … Read more

Patagonian Ice Sheet

This page summarises some of our recent research on the dynamics of Patagonian outlet glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum and following deglaciation. Pages on glacial landforms are especially relevant to the Geography A-Level curriculum. Here, you can watch a seminar I gave about the Patagonian Ice Sheet:   Further reading: Shrinking Patagonian Glaciers Patagonian … Read more


Drumlins around Lago Viedma Although the Patagonian Icefields aren’t generally associated with drumlins (Glasser et al., 2008), there are some around Lago Viedma in the South Patagonian Icefield. They have been described in detail (Ponce et al., 2013) but they show up beautifully in the Landsat map below. The mapping below is by me (Bethan … Read more

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