This page was contributed by Dr Frances Butcher from Sheffield University. What is an esker? Eskers are ridges made of sands and gravels, deposited by glacial meltwater flowing through tunnels within and underneath glaciers, or through meltwater channels on top of glaciers. Over time, the channel or tunnel gets filled up with sediments. As the …

Eskers Read More »

Introduction to Glaciofluvial Landforms

“Fluvioglacial” or “glaciofluvial” means erosion or deposition caused by flowing meltwater, from melting glaciers, ice sheets and ice caps. Glacial meltwater is usually very rich in sediment, which increases its erosive power. Glaciofluvial landforms include sandar (also known as outwash plains; they are braided, sediment-rich streams that drain away downslope away from a glacier), kames …

Introduction to Glaciofluvial Landforms Read More »

Glaciofluvial landforms

Glaciofluvial landforms are landforms created by the action of glacier meltwater. They can be erosional, or depositional landforms, and can form underneath, on top of, in front of, and around the edges of former glaciers.

Meltwater channels

What are meltwater channels? Each year, glaciers melt. Meltwater channels are erosional features, cut into rock and sediment by flowing water beneath or close to ice-sheet margins1,2. They can cut sizeable troughs, meaning that they are very visual indicators of the location of the former ice margin. Meltwater channels can therefore be used to work …

Meltwater channels Read More »

Glacial Lakes

Glaciers and lakes are intrinsically connected. Lakes form when meltwater ponds, and this can happen on the ice surface (supraglacial lakes), in front of the ice (proglacial lakes), or even underneath the ice (subglacial lakes). Glacier lakes can affect ice flow by reducing friction at the ice-bed interface, encouraging basal sliding. They can change the …

Glacial Lakes Read More »


This page is based on an article by Dr Jonathan Carrivick that appeared in Geology Today. Introduction | Geological importance of jökulhlaups | Deglacial association of jökulhlaups | Case study: volcanically-triggered jökulhlaups at Eyafjallajökull, Iceland | Comments | Introduction Jökulhlaups, or glacial outburst floods (GLOFS) are a key part of the deglaciation of alpine mountains …

Jökulhlaups Read More »

Glacier hydrology

Introduction | Supraglacial hydrology | Englacial hydrology | Subglacial hydrology | Proglacial drainage | References | Comments | Introduction Glacier hydrology is the study of the flow of water through glaciers. It is a mysterious world, where water running on the surface of the glacier disappears through cracks and holes in the glaciers, and powerful …

Glacier hydrology Read More »

This site uses cookies. Find out more about this site’s cookies.