Shrinking glaciers in Bhutan

By Alex Hyde The sub-tropical glaciers of Bhutan Bhutan is a small mountainous nation located in the Eastern Himalaya, with a population of around 727 000 people (Figure 1). The country has a sub-tropical climate in its south, where it borders lowland plains, and a Himalayan subalpine climate to the north where it meets the … Read more

Global Ocean Circulation

The Earth receives most of its heat energy as a direct source from the sun. This is known as insolation. However this insolation is not evenly distributed around the globe [1,2]. Areas in the equatorial region receive a surplus of energy, and areas in the higher latitudes, have an energy deficit. This is caused mostly … Read more

Antarctica StoryMaps Series

This page includes a series of four Antarctica StoryMap Collections introducing Antarctica, launched as a complete collection in September 2021. They are suitable for UK key stage 3 to GCSE (age ~14 to 16). However, they can easily be adapted by a teacher for older age groups and form the basis of discussion. The Antarctica … Read more

Differences between Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

The Antarctic and Arctic regions are polar opposites in more ways than one. These two regions have differences in the volume of ice, their climate, their seasonality, and much more. One important feature which separates the Arctic and Antarctic regions is their sea ice, and in particular how it changes over the year and its … Read more

Troughs and Fjords

Glacial troughs and fjords are deep erosional features calved into bedrock marking glacial activity [1,2]. The most characteristic difference between a trough and a fjord, is that a fjord ends in a coastal region, and is flooded by sea water [3]. These landforms can be located in a series of geographical locations and are characterised … Read more

Women and Minorities in Antarctica

Accounts from under-represented groups and their relationships with Antarctica are still rarely acknowledged in stories about the continent’s human history[1]. Instead, there is a continued focus on the heroic era with mainly European male explorers. Whilst still critically important, literature is filled with their accounts, and therefore this page will focus on the encounters from … Read more

Tourism in Antarctica

This article about Antarctica’s tourism has been written by Laura Boyall and Benjamin Samingpai. A trip to Antarctica is not a common holiday destination for many people. However, since the 1950s, there has been a growing number of individuals travelling to the southernmost continent. And then from the 1980s, the growth has been exponential with … Read more

People in Antarctica

This page introduces some of the ways in which people live, work and visit Antarctica, and how we govern this mighty, and beautiful, continent. You can also explore our People in Antarctica StoryMap Collection for an interactive timeline on the history of people in Antarctica, Antarctic Geopolitics, Tourism and Living in Antarctica. See also our … Read more

Ellipsoidal Basins

Ellipsoidal Basins is a geographical term used to describe deep, elongated lakes, formed by subglacial activity beneath past ice sheets [1]. Examples of these basins include the Great Lakes and Finger Lakes of North America [1,2]. These basins were formed either where the ice was topographically constrained (Finger Lakes), had vulnerable, softer, geology (the Great … Read more


Trimlines are erosional features which mark the maximum vertical extent of a past glaciation [1]. Different types of trimlines exist, dependent on the length of time since the last glacial advance [2]. In recently glaciated valleys, they are marked by a distinct change in vegetation. Above the trimline, dense vegetation exists with species characteristic of … Read more

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