Post-16

Troughs and Fjords

Glacial troughs and fjords are deep erosional features calved into bedrock marking glacial activity [1,2]. The most characteristic difference between a trough and a fjord, is that a fjord ends in a coastal region, and is flooded by sea water [3]. These landforms can be located in a series of geographical locations and are characterised …

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Women and Minorities in Antarctica

Accounts from under-represented groups and their relationships with Antarctica are still rarely acknowledged in stories about the continent’s human history[1]. Instead, there is a continued focus on the heroic era with mainly European male explorers. Whilst still critically important, literature is filled with their accounts, and therefore this page will focus on the encounters from …

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Tourism in Antarctica

This article about Antarctica’s tourism has been written by Laura Boyall and Benjamin Samingpai. A trip to Antarctica is not a common holiday destination for many people. However, since the 1950s, there has been a growing number of individuals travelling to the southernmost continent. And then from the 1980s, the growth has been exponential with …

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Ellipsoidal Basins

Ellipsoidal Basins is a geographical term used to describe deep, elongated lakes, formed by subglacial activity beneath past ice sheets [1]. Examples of these basins include the Great Lakes and Finger Lakes of North America [1,2]. These basins were formed either where the ice was topographically constrained (Finger Lakes), had vulnerable, softer, geology (the Great …

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Trimlines

Trimlines are erosional features which mark the maximum vertical extent of a past glaciation [1]. Different types of trimlines exist, dependent on the length of time since the last glacial advance [2]. In recently glaciated valleys, they are marked by a distinct change in vegetation. Above the trimline, dense vegetation exists with species characteristic of …

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Flutes

What are flutes? Glacial flutes are elongated, low-relief ridges formed subglacially and orientated in the direction of glacier flow [1,2,3]. Their size can range between several centimetres to a few metres both wide and high, and occur in groups of streamlined ridges known as ‘swarms’ [1]. Flutes are formed subglacially and are found in glacial …

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Tidewater Glaciers

What is a Tidewater Glacier? Tidewater glaciers are glaciers which extend out, and terminate into the sea [1]. They are part of a group of glaciers known as calving glaciers, as their main method of ice loss is through iceberg calving, instead of surface melt [1,2]. Calving icebergs currently accounts for up to 70% of …

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