99% of Antarctica is ice-covered, and so most of the glaciers and ice streams here end in the ocean. It is in these oceanic margins that we see the most rapid changes: ice stream acceleration, thinning and grounding line migration. At the ice-ocean interface, the ice sheet is vulnerable to melting from below as well as from above, as warm ocean currents penetrate the continental shelf and melt the ice sheets at their grounding line.
This section of the website contains lots of information about how ice sheets interact with the ocean. For more information, please do see:
- Calving Glaciers (freshwater)
- Ice shelves
- Ice shelves, sea ice and icebergs
- Antarctic ice shelves: the hidden villain
- Pine Island Glacier
- Sea level rise
- Is the West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapsing?